Lock, Stock, and Icebergs: The Evolution of Canada's Arctic Maritime Sovereignty. (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2016).
*Winner of the Dafoe Book Prize
In 1988, after years of failed negotiations over the status of the Northwest Passage, Brian Mulroney gave Ronald Reagan a globe, pointed to the Arctic, and said "Ron that's ours. We own it lock, stock, and icebergs." A simple statement, it summed up a hundred years of official policy. Since the nineteenth century, Canadian governments have claimed ownership of the land and the icy passageways that make up the Arctic Archipelago. Unfortunately for Ottawa, many countries – including the United States – still do not recognize the Northwest Passage as internal Canadian waters.
Crucial to understanding the complex nature of Canada's Arctic sovereignty is an understanding of its history. InLock, Stock, and Icebergs, Adam Lajeunesse draws on a wealth of recently declassified Canadian and American archival material to chart the origins and development of Canadian Arctic maritime policy – from the earliest police patrols in Hudson Bay to the deployment of nuclear submarines. Detailing decades of internal policy debates, secret negotiations with the United States, and long-classified joint-defence projects, he traces the circuitous history of Canada's official claim to the Northwest Passage and the waters of the Arctic Archipelago.
Lock, Stock, and Icebergs shows how successive governments spent decades trying to figure out what exactly ownership of these waters entailed. It sets the stage for understanding the challenges Canada now faces as it navigates a rapidly changing Arctic, especially in terms of balancing the political requirements of sovereignty with concerns about the environmental and economic and social development. One thing is certain: in the years to come strengthening Arctic sovereignty will be a more complex process than ever before.
“Lock, Stock and Icebergs sets a new standard for Canadian Arctic policy studies.”
-- Franklyn Griffiths, University of Toronto
"A thorough, judicious, and absorbing book"
-- Dafoe Book Prize Committee
"Exceptionally well-written and researched, this book adds critical new insight into Canadian-American relations and negotiations over the status of Canada's Arctic waters, particularly the Northwest Passage. It is a 'must read' for all federal politicians, foreign affairs officials, scholars of the north, and anyone interested in Canada's Arctic sovereignty and the measures needed to protect it."
-- Shelagh D. Grant, author of Polar Imperative: A History of Arctic Sovereignty in North America
"Lock, Stock, and Icebergs provides a behind-the-scenes look at the evolution and eventual proclamation of Canada's Maritime Arctic sovereignty policy. The wealth of historical documents presented here also reveals that this policy was fashioned not through consultation but by officials and politicians in Ottawa who rarely ventured north of 60°. It is a lesson that we ignore at our peril."
-- Tom Axworthy, Senior Fellow, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto
China’s Arctic Aspirations: The Emerging Interests of a “Near Arctic State” and What They Mean for Canada. University of Calgary Press., Forthcoming: 2017 (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer, James Manicom, and Frédéric Lasserre).
Canadian Armed Forces Arctic Operations, 1941-2015: Historical and Contemporary Lessons Learned. (Gregg Centre, 2017) (Co-edited with P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“China’s Mining Interests in the North American Arctic.” Governing the North American Arctic: Lessons from the Past, Prospects for the Future. Dawn Berry and Halbert Jones Eds. London: Palgrave MacMillan. (Forthcoming: 2015). (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer)
“Lester B. Pearson, the United States, and Arctic Sovereignty: A Case of Un-Pearsonian Diplomacy” Mike’s World: Lester Pearson and Canadian External Relations, 1963-1968. Asa McKercher and Galen Roger Perras Eds. (Forthcoming 2015). (With Peter Kikkert and P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“The Emerging Arctic Security Environment: Putting the Military in its (Whole of Government) Place.” In Whole of Government through an Arctic Lens. Heather Nicol and P. Whitney Lackenbauer Eds. Canadian Defence Academy Press (Forthcoming: 2016). (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“The Canadian Armed Forces in the Arctic: Building Capabilities and Connections.” In Whole of Government through an Arctic Lens. Heather Nicol and P. Whitney Lackenbauer Eds. Canadian Defence Academy Press (Forthcoming: 2016). (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“The Arctic Response Company Groups: Presence and Mass.” In Canadian Armed Forces Arctic Operations, 1941-2015: Historical and Contemporary Lessons Learned. Adam Lajeunesse and P. Whitney Lackenbauer Eds. Canadian Defence Academy Press. (Submitted: November, 2015).
“Early Days: The CAF Returns to the Arctic, 2000-2006.” In Canadian Armed Forces Arctic Operations, 1941-2015: Historical and Contemporary Lessons Learned. Adam Lajeunesse and P. Whitney Lackenbauer Eds. Canadian Defence Academy Press . (Submitted: November, 2015).
“Symbolism and Substance: Northern Deployments in the Late Cold War.” In Canadian Armed Forces Arctic Operations, 1941-2015: Historical and Contemporary Lessons Learned. Adam Lajeunesse and P. Whitney Lackenbauer Eds. Canadian Defence Academy Press. (Submitted: November, 2015).
Collections and Major Reports
“Ice Islands in Canadian Policy, 1954-1971.” Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security (October2015), 147 pages.
“Canadian Arctic Defence and Security Policy: An Overview of Key Documents, 1970-2012.” Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security (July, 2014), 79 pages. (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Ryan Dean).
Climate Change & International Security: The Arctic as a Bellwether. Arlington: Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2012, 54 pages. (With Rob Huebert, Heather Exner-Pirot, and Jay Gulledge).
Peer Reviewed Publications
“The Canadian Armed Forces in the Arctic: Building Appropriate Capabilities,” Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 16:4 (Spring, 2016), pp. 7-66 (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“The Canadian Armed Forces in the Arctic: Purpose, Capabilities, and Requirements,” Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute (May, 2015), 14 pages.
“On Uncertain Ice: The Future of the Northwest Passage and Arctic Shipping,” Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute (December, 2014), 16 pages. (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“A Very Practical Requirement: Under-Ice Operations in the Canadian Arctic, 1960-1986.” Cold War History 13:4 (November, 2013), pp. 507-524.
“The Ice has Ears: The Development of Canadian SOSUS.” Canadian Naval Review 9:3 (Fall, 2013), pp. 4-9. (with Bill Carruthers)
- Winner of the CNR’s 7th Annual Bruce S. Oland Competition
“The New Economics of Arctic Oil and Gas.” American Review of Canadian Studies 43:1 (February, 2013), pp. 107-122.
“A New Mediterranean? Arctic Shipping Prospects for the 21st Century.” Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 43:4 (October, 2012), pp. 521-539.
“Arctic Warfare.” Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History. Ed. Dennis Showalter. New York: Oxford University Press (Winter, 2012), 19 pages.
“Claiming the Frozen Seas: The Evolution of Canadian Policy in the Arctic Waters.” Canada and Arctic Sovereignty and Security: Historical Perspectives. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, Ed. P. Whitney Lackenbauer. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2010, pp. 233-259.
“The Northwest Passage in Canadian Policy: An Approach for the 21st Century.” International Journal 63:4 (Fall, 2008), pp. 1037-1052.
“Sovereignty, Security and the Canadian Nuclear Submarine Program.” The Canadian Military Journal 8:4 (Winter, 2008), pp. 74-82.
“The Distant Early Warning Line and the Battle for Public Perception.” The Canadian Military Journal 8:2 (Summer, 2007), pp. 51-59.
Working Papers and Collections
Negotiating Sovereignty: The Past and Present Failure of Security as a Bargaining Chip. Arctic Security Working Paper No. 5. Toronto: Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation and ArcticNet Arctic Security Projects (February, 2013), 22 pages.
“Canadian Arctic Defence and Security Policy: An Overview of Key Documents, 1970-2012.” Documents on Canadian Arctic Sovereignty and Security (July, 2014), 79 pages. (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Ryan Dean)
"Chinese Prepare to Use the Northwest Passage." World Policy Institute (September, 2016).
"Reviewing Canada’s Arctic Capability: Suggestions for the Defence Policy Review," Conference of Defence Associations Institute (June, 2016).
“The Evolving Security Requirements in the Canadian Arctic,” Conference of Defence Associations Institute (May, 2015).
“Developing the Offshore in the North American Arctic,” The Journal of Ocean Technology 9:2 (August, 2014), pp. 114-115. (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer)
“American Submarines in Arctic Waters: A Research Note,” The Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies Connect (January, 2013), 6 pages.
“Forgotten Frontier: A Brief History of Canada’s Northern Policy.” Nord-Nord-Ouest Chronique No. 6 (April, 2011), pp. 1-5.
“Fuel Cell Submarines and the Three Ocean Fleet.” The Centre for International Strategic Studies Bulletin 21:1 (Winter, 2008), pp. 10-11.
Review of A Historical and Legal Study of Sovereignty in the Canadian North by Gordon Smith, P. Whitney Lackenbauer Ed. Canadian Journal of History 51:2 (Autumn, 2016).
Review of Who owns the Arctic? by Michael Byers. The Northern Review 34 (Winter, 2012), pp. 105-108.
Review of From Far and Wide: A Complete History of Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty by Peter Pigeott. Arctic 65:2 (June, 2012), pp. 234-236.
Review of Mud: A Military History by C.E. Wood. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 13:4 (Summer, 2011), pp. 1-4.
Review of The Canadian Forces and Arctic Sovereignty: Debating Roles, Interests and Requirements, 1968-1974 by P. Whitney Lackenbauer and Peter Kikkert. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 14:1 (Fall, 2011), pp. 1-4.
“More Ships in the Northwest Passage will Boost our Arctic Claim,” Globe and Mail (January 5, 2014). (With P. Whitney Lackenbauer).
“Much Ado about the Arctic’s Great Game,” National Post (December 27, 2013).
Interview on the subject of Arctic submarine operations for CBC North (November, 2012).